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Monthly Archive: October 2016

Amino Acids And Peptides


The most abundant macromolecules found in the living cells are the proteins. They are present in all parts of the cell and in all the cells. There are various kinds of proteins, found in a single cell and these different proteins exhibit different biological functions. Proteins are the most important end products I most of the cycles and pathways. They can be considered as the molecular instruments through which genetic traits are expressed. The name protein is derived from the Greek word ‘protos’, which means ‘first’. talks about peptides and amino acids. You can find related information about amino acids, proteins and peptides at

All proteins are made of ubiquitous set of 20 amino acids; from ancient bacteria to very complex life forms, all the proteins present are made of the 20 amino acids, linked through linear sequences. Their side chains determine the characteristic of the protein as even a slight change in the side chain could bring about changes in the chemical properties.
Amino acid chains form a protein and these amino acids are linked together by specific covalent bonds. By combining the 20 amino acids in different forms, a number of diverse proteins like antibodies, spider web, hormones, mushroom poison etc can be produced by cells.

Amino Acids
Proteins can be broken down into amino acids by various methods. Asparagine was the first amino acid to be discovered in 1806. Threonine was the last amino acid among the 20 to be found, which wasn’t identified until1938. Amino acids were named after the sources from which they were first discovered. For example, asparagine was found in asparagus.

Structural features of amino acid
All the amino acids have a carboxyl group and an amino acid group is bound to the same carbon atom. Amino acids differ from each other by their side chains or R groups; these side chains vary in size, structure and they determine the electric charge and solubility of the amino acid in water. The amino acids that form the protein are referred to as primary, normal or standard amino acids to distinguish them from other amino acids that are modified after protein synthesis or from amino acids that are present in the body naturally but are not in any proteins.

The standard amino acids have been assigned one letter symbols and three letter abbreviations to indicate composition of sequence in amino acids. All standard amino acids except glycine have α carbon that is asymmetric and is bound to four substitute groups; an amino group, R group, carboxyl group and hydrogen atom. The α-carbon atom determines the chiral character of the amino acid. As the bonding orbital is found in a tetrahedral arrangement around the α-carbon, the four substituent groups could occupy two different arrangements which form non super imposable mirror images. The forms are called stereoisomer or enantiomer. The molecules with a chiral centre are called optically active as they can rotate plane polarized light.

The naming and classification of amino acids are based on the configuration of their four substituent groups. A reference compound will be chosen and all the optically active compared to this reference compound.

Gothic Dress Collections For Women Of All Ages

punk-ravePunk rave is a clothing type suitable for both men and women and it is a popular brand of Gothic classic designed with a traditional and classic design. The Gothic brand offers versatile clothing and you can get traditional, industrial, and also little Lolita category. You have various options like spade top, jacket, leggings etc and you can add this to your wardrobe collection easily by purchasing from an online store.

The retail shopping has been steadily rising in recent days, particularly in the UK. The website illustrates the various promotions offered by the sellers have further motivated the customers to purchase their product and the retail spending is expected to increase further in future.

Queen of Spade top is a lightweight and stretchy vest top offered by them and you can use it as an everyday wear. It is a black strappy and plain vest top on the front side but it has cute cross laced open at the back. It gives you cool, sexy and daring look for the warmer season.

Gothic black echo cardigan is a stretchy and super soft outfit. It is an ideal piece of daily wear and has small metallic skull buttons, with cute ruched details on cuffs of the longer sleeves. You can cover up perfectly during the colder days to get a complete Gothic look.

Gothic Pandara top is a beautiful top designed with some beautiful pvc spiderweb designs over the shoulders. It is a classic outfit with huge neckline with a long sleeve made up of fine mesh. Across the chest, it has asymmetric lines made up of opaque cotton fabric that creates the main body and another long sleeve.

Gothic thorn long sleeve top is again a beautiful black top of a casual vibe. It is a plain top at the front but has an attractive strap design at the back of this long sleeve top. It is manufactured using soft cotton blend and it is a versatile top with some stretches on it. You can combine it with a hugging trouser for a beautiful night look.

Cobweb top is another excellent gothic piece. You can use it as overtop manufactured from stretch cotton as cobweb design and it is available only in one size. It is cut similar to a vest and designed as the jeweled spider at the center of the cobweb top.

The silent hilltop of this brand is particularly for men. It is a crew neck t-shirt has a dark green ram’s skull point and a striking. The top of the t-shirt has laced sleeves which offer extra detail to your shoulders. The neckline in the front of the t-shirt is made up of several green rivet holes to go with laces embellishing the arms.

Gothic cross summer dress for women has a lovely classic skater cut with an attached collar neckline and has a cute low neck at the back of the dress. The strap design is cross-shaped and it is made up of wonderful soft stretch cotton material.